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Athletes internalize these values. The Brazilians assume that, if one goes to an event with a higher time, like Ricardo Prado, he has a chance to win a medal. The second place of meadow becomes felt when he returns home because he has a world record that was improved before the race began. Given the overwhelming value that the American culture gives to work, it may seem surprising that the US media devote so much attention to the unforeseen results and so little to the years of training, preparation and competition that underlie Olympic performance. It is probably assumed that hard work is so obvious and fundamental that it passes unnoticed. Or perhaps the assumption is that, by the time athletes actually enter the Olympic competition, they are all as similar (the US value of equality) that only mysterious and random factors can explain success. The US approach in the unexpected applies to both losses and triumphs. Concepts such as chance, destiny, mystery and uncertainty are seen as legitimate reasons for defeat. The runners and skaters fall; The ligaments are broken; An “inexplicably” gymnast falls from the foal with arzones. Therefore, the Americans recognize the random disaster as a companion of successful success

Expected, but Brazilians put more responsibility in the individual, and assign personal failures. Far they are of attributions to factors that are beyond human control. Easefully it is blamed for individuals who must perform well when they do not. Culturally, in Brazil it is adequate to use the disease as an excuse to lose. Brazilian athletes usually mention colds or diarrhea as a reason for poor performance, or even to retire from a race at the last minute (veja, 1984c). Brazilians use health problems as an excuse, while Americans take them as a challenge that they can often face and defeat. Despite the focus on making, US culture does not insist that individuals can completely control the results, and it is not so necessary, as it is in Brazil, that the

Athletes explain their own failures. The Brazilian media, in contrast, believe it is necessary to assign fault for faults, and this usually means blaming the athlete. In a characteristic way, US media speak much more about injuries and the diseases of the victors and finalists, than those of the losers or those who renounce.


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